41. What is positive and negative testing explains with example?
Positive Testing - testing the system by giving the valid data.
Negative Testing - testing the system by giving the Invalid data.
For Ex, an application contains a textbox and as per the user's Requirements the text box should accept only Strings. By providing only String as input data to the textbox & to check whether its working properly or not means it is Positive Testing. If giving the input other than String means it is negative Testing.
42. What is mutation testing?
Forcibly injecting bug and testing the functionally
43. Which test cases are not to be automated?
All the test cases which are related to a feature of the product, that keeps on changing (there are always some or the other enhancements in it). Frequent enhancements may change the UI, add/remove few controls. Hence such cases, if automated, would involve lot of maintenance.
44. What is severity and priority?
Severity means: is the impact of the bug on the app. seriousness of the bug interims of the functionality.
Severity is given by the Tester. Types of Severity are
* Low Severity
* Medium Severity
* High Severity
* Critical (With Work Around)
* Critical (With No work Around) – Show Stopper
Priority means: is how soon it should get fixed. I.e. importance of the bug in terms of customer.
Priority is mostly given by the Project Manager.
45. What are the different type of bugs in client server and web based? And what is the difference in testing client server and web based?
Normally Client server system will be 2-tier and web based system will be 3-tier or n-tier.
In 2-tier Client-Server architecture application program will be installed in the client system. This application program we can also call it as Client tool. And the second important part in client server architecture is Server or Back end database. The client tool or application program used to send queries to server/backend database, to retrieve info and present on client side.
For e.g.: client front-end client tool or application program may be developed in Visual Basic. The front end (client tool) will be connected to database through DSN (data source name).In client-server the client and the server will be located in the same office and its users are limited in number, Typical range is 50-500 clients. In real time two tier architecture cannot handle more than 50 clients at a time. So modified client server architecture is developed. This Modified client-server architecture exactly resembles
Web 3-tier architecture. There are three important layers in three-tier architecture
1. Front-End (Browser)
2. Web server (like apache)
3. Database sever (like oracle, SQLServer, MySQL, etc)
The modified Client Server architecture uses the same 3-tier web based architecture. One more important point is Client Server users are limited and number is predictable. But in the case of web-based architecture the users are unlimited and number is unpredictable. Client-server environment we know the client environment needs like browser type and system Hardware configuration and required plain. But In the case of Web Based environment no one can predict that the user attempts access information from which system in the world wide internet and its configuration both S/w and H/w. the web application must be browser independent, I mean that it should work on different types of browsers like Mozilla fire Fox, Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, etc. and also on different versions of each browser. And also Security also one of important in web application testing.
46. What do you understand by the terms ‘Response Time’, ‘Pages Per Second’, ‘Transactions Per Second’?
Response Time: Time taken by server or application to respond user request. (Response time from server/application)
Transaction Per Second: TPS is the count of transactions processed each second. Like Kilometers Per Hour, it is a Measurement of speed.
Pages Per Second: is the count of accessed pages per second.
47. What is the difference between bug log and defect tracking?
Bug log is a document, which maintains the information of the bug where as bug tracking is the process.
48. What is the difference between error, bug and defect?
Bug : Deviations in the application functionality
Error : Mistakes in coding
Defect : Deviations from the requirements
49. Give an example of High Priority and Low Severity, Low Priority and High Severity
In user interface bugs we are giving low severity
Ex: 1) Improper alignments (low priority)
2) Spelling mistakes (high priority)
In calculation bug we are giving high severity
Ex: 1) final output is wrong (low priority)
2) Dependent outputs are wrong (high priority)
50. How will you confirm the Test Cases are passed?
In test cases format you will have expected result and Actual result. During the execution of test cases when there is a deviation from expected and actual then the test case is said to be failed. And if the Expected and actual are same then we confirm those test cases are passed