Thursday, March 20, 2008

FAQ - Automation - QTP (111 to 120)

111. If an application name is changes frequently i.e while recording it has name “Window1” and then while running its “Windows2” in this case how does QTP handles?

QTP handles those situations using “Regular Expressions..

112. Table and DB Checkpoints:

By adding table checkpoints to your tests or components, you can check that a specified value is displayed in a cell in a table on your application. By adding database checkpoints to your tests or components, you can check the contents of databases accessed by your application. The results displayed for table and database checkpoints are similar. When you run your test or component, QuickTest compares the expected results of the checkpoint to the actual results of the run session. If the results do not match, the checkpoint fails. You can check that a specified value is displayed in a cell in a table by adding a table checkpoint to your test or component. For ActiveX tables, you can also check the properties of the table object. To add a table checkpoint, you use the Checkpoint Properties dialog box. Table checkpoints are supported for Web and ActiveX applications, as well as for a variety of external add-in environments. You can use database checkpoints in your test or component to check databases accessed by your Web site or application and to detect defects. You define a query on your database, and then you create a database checkpoint that checks the results of the query. Database checkpoints are supported for all environments supported by QuickTest, by default, as well as for a variety of external add-in environments. There are two ways to define a database query:
(a) Use Microsoft Query. You can install Microsoft Query from the custom installation of Microsoft Office.
(b) Manually define an SQL statement.
The Checkpoint timeout option is available only when creating a table checkpoint. It is not available when creating a database checkpoint

113. Checking Bitmaps:

You can check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While creating a test or component, you specify the area you want to check by selecting an object. You can check an entire object or any area within an object. QuickTest captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a checkpoint in the test or component. You can also choose to save only the selected area of the object with your test or component in order to save disk space. When you run the test or component, QuickTest compares the object or selected area of the object currently displayed on the Web page or application with the bitmap stored when the test or component was recorded. If there are differences, QuickTest captures a bitmap of the actual object and displays it with the expected bitmap in the details portion of the Test Results window. By comparing the two bitmaps (expected and actual), you can identify the nature of the discrepancy. For more information on test results of a checkpoint, see Viewing Checkpoint Results. For example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms incorrectly. You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing environments (as long as the appropriate add-ins are loaded). Note: The results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as operating system, screen resolution, and color settings.

114. Text/Text Area Checkpoint :

In the Text/Text Area Checkpoint Properties dialog box, you can specify the text to be checked as well as which text is displayed before and after the checked text. These configuration options are particularly helpful when the text string you want to check appears several times or when it could change in a predictable way during run sessions.

Note: In Windows-based environments, if there is more than one line of text selected, the Checkpoint Summary pane displays [complex value] instead of the selected text string. You can then click Configure to view and manipulate the actual selected text for the checkpoint. QuickTest automatically displays the Checked Text in red and the text before and after the Checked Text in blue. For text area checkpoints, only the text string captured from the defined area is displayed (Text Before and Text After are not displayed). To designate parts of the captured string as Checked Text and other parts as Text Before and Text After, click the Configure button. The Configure Text Selection dialog box opens

115. Checking XML :

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a meta-markup language for text documents that is endorsed as a standard by the W3C. XML makes the complex data structures portable between different computer environments/operating systems and programming languages, facilitating the sharing of data.
XML files contain text with simple tags that describe the data within an XML document. These tags describe the data content, but not the presentation of the data. Applications that display an XML document or file use either Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) or XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO) to present the data.
You can verify the data content of XML files by inserting XML checkpoints. A few common uses of XML checkpoints are described below:
An XML file can be a static data file that is accessed in order to retrieve commonly used data for which a quick response time is needed—for example, country names, zip codes, or area codes. Although this data can change over time, it is normally quite static. You can use an XML file checkpoint to validate that the data has not changed from one application release to another.
An XML file can consist of elements with attributes and values (character data). There is a parent and child relationship between the elements, and elements can have attributes associated with them. If any part of this structure (including data) changes, your application’s ability to process the XML file may be affected. Using an XML checkpoint, you can check the content of an element to make sure that its tags, attributes, and values have not changed. XML files are often an intermediary that retrieves dynamically changing data from one system. The data is then accessed by another system using Document Type Definitions (DTD), enabling the accessing system to read and display the information in the file. You can use an XML checkpoint and parameterize the captured data values in order to check an XML document or file whose data changes in a predictable way. XML documents and files often need a well-defined structure in order to be portable across platforms and development systems. One way to accomplish this is by developing an XML schema, which describes the structure of the XML elements and data types. You can use schema validation to check that each item of content in an XML file adheres to the schema description of the element in which the content is to be placed.

116. What information do the columns in the Keyword View show for each step?

As you recorded your test, QuickTest generated steps in the Keyword View representing each operation you performed in the Web browser.
The columns in the Keyword View show different information for each step, as follows:. Item—Displays the item for the step (test object, utility object, function call, or statement) in a hierarchical icon-based tree.
Operation—The operation to be performed on the item, for example, Click or Select.
Value—The argument values for the selected operation, for example, the mouse button to use when clicking the image.
Assignment—The assignment of a value to or from a variable so you can use the value later in the test.
Comment—Any textual information you want to add regarding the step, for example, Return to page used in first step of the test.
Documentation—Auto-documentation of what the step does, in an easy-to-understand sentence, for example, Click the “findFlights” image.

117. Why use Regular Expressions?

You created a text checkpoint that searched for a specific text string. You can use regular expressions to increase the flexibility and adaptability of your tests.
Regular expressions enable QuickTest to identify objects and text strings with varying values. You can use regular expressions when defining the properties of an object, the methods of an argument, when parameterizing a step, and when creating checkpoints with varying values.

118. Explain the check points in QTP?

A checkpoint verifies that expected information is displayed in an Application while the test is running. You can add eight types of checkpoints to your test for standard web objects using QTP.

* A page checkpoint checks the characteristics of an Application
* A text checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate place on an Application.
* An object checkpoint (Standard) checks the values of an object on an Application.
* An image checkpoint checks the values of an image on an Application.
* A table checkpoint checks information within a table on an Application
* an Accessibility checkpoint checks the web page for Section 508 compliance.
* An XML checkpoint checks the contents of individual XML data files or XML documents that are part of your Web application.
* A database checkpoint checks the contents of databases accessed by your web site

119. In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP.

We can add checkpoints while recording the application or we can add after recording is completed using Active screen (Note : To perform the second one The Active screen must be enabled while recording).

120. Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.

Essentially all configuration and run functionality provided via the QuickTest interface is in some way represented in the QuickTest automation object model via objects, methods, and properties. Although a one-on-one comparison cannot always be made, most dialog boxes in QuickTest have a corresponding automation object, most options in dialog boxes can be set and/or retrieved using the corresponding object property, and most menu commands and other operations have corresponding automation methods. You can use the objects, methods, and properties exposed by the QuickTest automation object model, along with standard programming elements such as loops and conditional statements to design your program.

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